||Snow 1977, no. 232: "Each of the 47 arabismos is studied and analysed in context and also in comparison with original meanings in Arabic. Some are learned; others seem to have entered through Castilian. A few seem independent of either solution. These make up approximately 1 per cent of the 235,286 words in the CSM in contrast to the thirteenth century average for the Peninsula of about 4 per cent. One of the paradoxes brought out by this study is that direct contacts between the Arabic world and the Galician-Portuguese, although frequent, did not produce much observable direct linguistic borrowing, Galician resorting to Castilian as an intermediary for such borrowings."